Evaluation of dry eye disease symptomatology and mental health status among patients with different COVID-19 statuses
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Wen-Bin Wei and Ying Jie. Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing 100730, China. weiwenbintr@163.com; jie_yingcn@aliyun.com


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    AIM: To evaluate dry eye disease (DED) symptomatology and mental health status in different COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational design was used. Totally 123 eligible adults (46.34% of men, age range, 18-59y) with COVID-19 included in the study from August to November, 2022. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Five-item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in this study. RESULTS: OSDI scores were 6.82 (1.25, 15.91) in asymptomatic carriers, 7.35 (2.50, 18.38) in mild cases, and 16.67 (4.43, 28.04) in recurrent cases, with 30.00%, 35.56%, and 57.89%, respectively evaluated as having DED symptoms (χ2=7.049, P=0.029). DEQ-5 score varied from 2.00 (0, 6.00) in asymptomatic carriers, 3.00 (0, 8.00) in mild cases, and 8.00 (5.00, 10.00) in recurrent cases, with 27.50%, 33.33%, and 55.26%, respectively assessed as having DED symptoms (χ2=8.532, P=0.014). The prevalence of clinical anxiety (50.00%) and depression (47.37%) symptoms were also significantly higher in patients with recurrent infection (χ2=24.541, P<0.001; χ2=30.871, P<0.001). Recurrent infection was a risk factor for high OSDI scores [odds ratio, 2.562; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.631-7.979; P=0.033] and DEQ-5 scores (odds ratio, 3.353; 95%CI, 1.038-8.834; P=0.043), whereas having a fixed occupation was a protective factor for OSDI scores (odds ratio, 0.088; 95%CI, 0.022-0.360; P=0.001) and DEQ-5 scores (odds ratio, 0.126; 95%CI, 0.039-0.405; P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with recurrent COVID-19 have more severe symptoms of DED, anxiety, and depression.

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Fang Ruan, Wen-Jun Kong, Qian Fan, et al. Evaluation of dry eye disease symptomatology and mental health status among patients with different COVID-19 statuses. Int J Ophthalmol, 2024,17(5):822-830

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  • Received:October 20,2023
  • Revised:February 29,2024
  • Adopted:February 29,2024
  • Online: April 24,2024
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